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This advocacy brief highlights five main ways in which internal migration affects and is affected by socio-economic development. As such, these are issues that deserve attention from policymakers and development partners in Viet Nam. To enhance the potential of internal migration to contribute to equitable social and economic development, this paper provides a set of specific policy recommendations. The recommendations focus on the need for more and better data on internal migration to support evidence-based policymaking; reform of the household registration system; actions to ensure internal migration is safe and migrants are protected in their employment; use of migrant-sensitive planning for urban and industrial zones; and exploration of new ways to leverage internal migration for human development.