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Based on the data from the Population and Housing Censuses in 1979-2009 as well as the population projections, the aim of this report is to analyze changes in the age structure of the Vietnamese population in the past and the future. The report further focuses on the opportunities but also on the challenges presented by such a Demographic Bonus period. Suggestions are subsequently made with regard to 4 main policy areas: (i) education and training; (ii) labour, employment, and human resources; (iii) population, family, and health; and (iv) social protection. The report also aims to provide a thorough and comprehensive review and analysis of the issues, and provide tentative recommendations for policy makers and planners in order to maximize the potential advantage of the period of Demographic Bonus.